Stegonia latifolia (Schwaegr. in Schult.) Vent. ex Broth. is recorded from the Antarctic on the basis of the specimens collected from Signy Island, South Orkney Island and King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The Antarctic material is briefly described and illustrated and the world geographical distribution of this species is briefly reviewed and mapped. This is also the first well documented record of the genus Stegonia Vent. outside the Holarctic. It is suggested that S. lorentzii (C. Muell.) I. Hag. in I. Hag. & Printz from the Andes of Argentina, another species included in this genus, is conspecific with Saitoella peruviana (R. S. Williams) Menzel. A list of strictly bipolar moss species in the western hemisphere is reassessed and two species, Ditrichum heteromallum (Hedw.) Britt. and Tortella torluosa (Hedw.) Limpr., are excluded from it.
On nights spent lounging on the balcony with Maher and Nisreen, sippingon mint tea, drawing apple-infused smoke through the nargila andexchanging conversation – partly in my tentative Arabic – I find myselfforgetting entirely where I am. Where I am is Bait Sahour, in theIsraeli-occupied West Bank, but the adjective ‘occupied’ tends to lapsefrom my consciousness with disturbing regularity. And it’s not as ifthere’s a dearth of visual reminders; there’s the eight metre highconcrete monstrosity of the separation wall snaking its way throughPalestinian land; there are the Israeli soldiers lugging M16s around;there are the illegal settlements with their thousands of houses, eachone a bland and soulless replica of every other; there are theomnipresent checkpoints, erecting barriers between every point of note.I felt deeply unsettled the first time I saw an armed soldier – thecasual way in which he held his gun jarring with its sinisterpotential. The first time I saw the wall, my eyes struggled to take inits size and its ugliness. My first experience of being held up at acheckpoint left me furious and frustrated with impatience. Butfamiliarity breeds desensitization. You begin to dissassociate: thewall from the land it confiscates and the communities it splinters; thesoldiers’ presence from the humiliation of military occupation; thesettlements from how they appropriate and carve up another people’sland. Words become devoid of any meaning deeper than their respectiveOED definitions. A wall becomes just a wall, a settlement just asettlement, a checkpoint just another checkpoint. The real tragedy ofoccupation does not manifest itself in the visible but in the lives andminds of the occupied; so as an outsider it is easy to be blinded tothe sorrows of occupation.Moments of poignancy then take you by surprise. Tragedy slips easilyinto what would otherwise be the most ordinary of dialogues andsituations: Maher interrupts the peace of an evening on his balcony torecall a memory from the first intifada, when, aged 14, he was shot inthe leg with a rubber bullet, knocked unconscious and then beatenbecause he threw a stone at a soldier. Manar’s tour of her universitytakes in the auditorium, the faculties, the monument to students killedby the Israeli army, and the view onto the hill from which the armyshelled buildings, as if each landmark were as run of the mill as theothers. My Arabic teacher oscillates between merry anecdotes of herGerman students to tearful recollections of encounters with the army –feeling “like a sheep” when she nervously crossed the checkpoint intoEast Jerusalem, walking away from a soldier so he wouldn’t see her crywhen he came to inform her that the army had taken her land. Theparallel running of the trappings of a ‘normal’ life alongside themisery of occupation is tragically expressive of the fact that here themisery of occupation is normal life.It wasn’t until I heard Amjad Rfaie (Director of the Social DevelopmentCentre in New Aska Camp, Nablus) verbalise it that the meaning fullyresonated with me: “Everyone here has a sad story. Sometimes it’s asmall sad story, sometimes it’s a big one, but everybody has a sadstory”. The statement has since stood out in my mind for being eloquentin its simplicity, yet ineffable in its implications: as aninternational, you can never fully fathom the grief of a societycrumbling under the burden of 4 million sad stories, big and small. Theclosest you can get is reading the stories, with all their layers ofmeaning, as they unravel before you every day.Like the 27th July 2005, when three houses in the village of Al-Khaderwere demolished by the Israeli army. Last year Israel demolished thehomes of 1,471 families, mostly for “administrative” purposes. Thebuildings in Al-Khader are being cleared because they are too close tothe settler bypass road; the army use the excuse that the residents donot have a building permit. Whatever the reason the action is contraryto international law: the Fourth Geneva Convention strictly prohibitsany destruction of property by the Occupying Power “except where suchdestruction is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations”.The day after the demolitions I journey to the ruins with a group ofinternationals. By asking “ween?”(where?), while miming out destructionto every villager we pass, we finally accumulate the directions to thesite of the demolitions and meander our way through Al-Khader to theill-fated destination. There we are confronted with the sprawlingconcrete and metal corpse of the bulldozed homes. The houses have beenripped out from their very foundations, bleeding a tangle of metalarteries onto the earth.Metres from this wreckage a newly homeless family sit on theirhurriedly salvaged furniture in the cooling shade of an olive tree. Thesmall children, who number twelve and one on its way, shyly eye theirinternational visitors with excited curiosity, immuned by the bliss ofyouthful ignorance. The farmer and his two wives rest in near silence,possibly reflecting, maybe contemplating, perhaps forcing off themoment of realisation and the inevitable question, “What now?” Theirsombre tranquillity is momentarily broken when a settler deceleratespast the scene, orange anti-disengagement ribbon trailing from hisaerial, car horn blaring to signal out his glee.In the face of the wretched combination of Israeli bureaucracy andbulldozers I feel drained of every semblance of utility. Still, thefamily thank us, in apples, for our solidarity, explaining that thepresence of internationals brings hope when it seems like the wholeworld is deaf and blind to the situation here. Their words – translatedthrough a local – provide some comfort for a Westerner selfishlyseeking her validation. Before we leave, the family amble onto therubble remains to strike a disorientated pose, captured on our camerasand allied with a promise to show and tell people back home. The difficulties the Israeli army impose on attempts to move from A toB, saturate any journey with innumerable sad stories. Restri0ctions onmovement in Nablus – the largest city in the West Bank – wringespecially tight. Four checkpoints control movement in and out of thecity. Each of these is an internal checkpoint, impeding movement fromone Palestinian area to another. The Huwara checkpoint, restrictsmovement to the south of Nablus, and is the biggest in the West Bank –an average of 6,000 people pass through daily. But the production lineof the Huwara checkpoint churns out the perverse freedom at a painfullyslow rate: to exit the city you must pass through a sheltered areaencompassing a series of floor to roof turnstiles, metal detectors, bagsearches and questioning. Soldiers, many of them just teenagers,control passage: they can hold you up for hours, turn you back toNablus, at a button’s press they can command the opening and closing ofthe turnstile.I approach the checkpoint and filter into the line for women andchildren. As I wait to exit the incarcerated city I watch a soldierease his boredom by trapping a child between the cold metal bars of theturnstile. The imagery invokes memories of snippets of conversationfrom back in Bait Sahour: Maher imparting, “It feels like we’re livingin a prison”; Nisreen intoning, “See how they treat us? They treat uslike animals”. After a passport inspection and routine grilling fromthe 18 year old soldier at the end of the production line, I’m free totaxi back to Bait Sahour, with one checkpoint down and two to go.The day makes good preparation for my trip to the city of Tulkarm. Therecent Netanyu suicide bomber hailed from near Tulkarm, and so theresidents of the city are finding themselves subject to a range ofcollective punishments: floating checkpoints, road blocks, closures. Athree hour (there and back inclusive) journey stretches out into a 10hour road rageist’s nightmare. I count a total of 12 obstaclesobstructing our freedom of movement, including road blocks, and allmanifestations of checkpoints: at one point soldiers march down theaisle of our bus, inspecting papers; we wait in traffic jams to passthrough floating checkpoints, which are temporary and can appearanywhere, at any time. We are held up for two and a half hours at afour way checkpoint at a cross roads, where we observe a soldier trainhis gun at an elderly women while the sun scorches above. It’smonotonous travelling and it tires you out. We sit in buses, in taxis,and on the hot ground before the checkpoint, quiet with fatigue. Once,the silence is broken, by our guide, Mohammed, saying, “This is whathappens every day; all I want to do is go home and see my children.”His voice is heavy with weariness from countless repeats of the day I’mexperiencing now for the first and last time.When asked why the checkpoints, why the wall, why the imprisonmentswith no charge? Palestinians answer, “Security,” permeating the wordwith heart-rending sarcasm. The word sounds no less hollow when utteredby the Israeli soldiers. “Security” is perhaps the emptiest word herein the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). A quick look at a map ora day spent on the ground in the West Bank is enough for thatrealisation to dawn. It’s clear when you watch soldiers arbitrarilyturning cars back in the road, and then driving off and leaving theremaining traffic to its own devices. It’s clear when a soldier at aninternal checkpoint turns your taxi driver back because he happens tobe from a particular village, and it’s clearer still when the taxidriver is forced to take a long-cut (known to the Israelis) which putshim back on the road not a hundred metres past the original checkpoint.And it was clear when a recently retired Israeli general who led thecivil administration in the OPT said, “Of course the wall is not asecurity wall – it’s a political wall. Just look at the map.”The Wall is unnecessarily the author of a thousand sad stories. Itslices through the Ayda Refugee Camp in Bethlehem, leaving manyPalestinians on the “other side”. The wall separates these people fromtheir medical and educational facilities. Cars cannot pass through thecheckpoint in the wall, where people can be held up for many hours. Thechildren are always late for school, the emergency medical services arealways potentially too far out of reach. The tactic aims at drivingthese people off their land and to the other side of the wall.In July last year, the International Court of Justice, the principaljudicial organ of the United Nations ruled that “the construction ofthe wall being built by Israel, the occupying Power, in the OccupiedPalestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, arecontrary to international law; Israel is under an obligation to ceaseforthwith the works of construction of the wall being built in theOccupied Palestinian Territory, to dismantle forthwith the structuretherein situated, and to make reparation for all damage caused by theconstruction of the wall.” Yet, the damage continues unabated.Standing on the balcony of Issa’s house, near Tulkarm, I can see outonto his acres of olive tree groves. Each olive tree is imbued with itsown particular character. Their branches contort into the mosthuman-like of expressions; they demand anthropomorphising. ThePalestinian people oblige, referring to the trees as theirgrandfathers. An innocuous looking fence, barely discernable againstthe yellow hues of the desert land, runs across the horizon a fewmetres from the house. The fence is part of the planned 400 mile lengthof the separation wall and this section is severing Issa from hisfamily of trees. Issa can only access his olives through a gate in thefence, five kilometres distant from his house, which is just ten metresdistant from his land. For the olives to be harvested he must call asoldier to open a gate in the fence. Typically a teenager will saunterup to the gate three or four hours later. Issa is then permitted towork the land for two hours. He cannot bring vehicles onto his land: herelies on his own work power and that of his wife and donkey (whosenames the soldier mockingly interchanges). These constraints make itimpossible to harvest enough olives. Most go to rot, ten metres fromhis home. “They say this is for security, but where is our security?”he implores.Whatever your feelings about the Israel-Palestine issue, to materializean opinion on the above, there is no need for recourse to complicatedhistorical, religious, nationalist or political debate. There is noneed to construct arguments for or against why the wall should be torndown, the settlements dismantled, the checkpoints and house demolitionsconfined to the dustbin of history, and with immediate effect: it hasall be done for you. The collective punishment, the wall, the housedemolitions, the very occupation are all explicitly prohibited byinternational law. It seems then that the most extraordinary thingabout the occupation is how very ordinary it has become.ARCHIVE: 1st week MT 2005
Newly released papers have revealed that former Oxford Professor J.R.R. Tolkein was considered for the Nobel prize for Literature, but rejected as not worthy of such an award.Tolkein was nominated for the award by his friend and fellow professor C.S. Lewis, and made the shortlist of 50 authors. However the prize jury are recorded as remarking that Tolkein’s prose did “not in any way measure up to storytelling of the highest quality.”Former Oxford student Graham Greene was also eventually rejected by the jury, whilst the “advanced years” of Robert Frost and E.M. Forster prevented them from being recognised. Referring to Frost, the jury declared that his age was “a fundamental obstacle which the committee regretfully found it necessary to state.”The award was eventually presented to Yugoslavian writer Ivo Andric. The panel praised him for “the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country.”Oxford student Andrea Jansson responded to the dismissal of Tolkein’s writing credentials in support of the Nobel jury. She told Cherwell, “It wasn’t his prose that was good, it was his ideas.”However Brasenose second year Amy Rollason responded, “His work is loved by many, and I don’t think the Nobel snub is necessarily representative.” She went on, “What could admittedly be seen as tedium and overwriting on Tolkein’s part, seems to me to be a deep devotion to the world he created, and story he wanted to tell.”Fellow Brasenose student Claire Cornish added, “I don’t really know anything about Tolkein’s writing. But for what it’s worth, I strongly believe that anyone whose work brought together Viggo Mortensen, Orlando Bloom and that hot Rohan guy in one film, deserves the highest accolades that society can offer.”The considerations of the Nobel committee remain secret until fifty years after the award is made.
University of Southern Indiana Track & Field recorded five first-place finishes at the University of Indianapolis Track & Field Challenge Friday and Saturday.Seniors Jamie Adkins (Owensboro, Kentucky) and Jessica Reeves (Midland, Michigan) posted first-place showings in the women’s mile and the women’s 3,000 meters, respectively, while sophomore Jenna Martin (Evansville, Indiana) was first in the women’s long jump.Adkins completed the mile in five minutes, 13.75 seconds and was one of four Screaming Eagles to finish in the top five of the event; while Reeves edged freshman Hope Jones (Cumberland, Indiana) for first in the 3,000 meters as she crossed the tape in 10:26.55.Martin, who posted a mark of 17 feet, 3.5 inches in the long jump, also was third in the 60-meter hurdles with a school-record time of 9.22 seconds.Juniors Chase Broughton (Marengo, Indiana) and Josh Guy (Palmyra, Indiana) recorded first-place finishes in the 800 meters and 3,000-meters, respectively, to lead the No. 22 men’s squad.Broughton completed the 800 meters in one 1:57.71 seconds, while Guy ran the 3,000 meters in 8:31.73. Junior Noah Lutz (Evansville, Indiana) was second in the 3,000 meters, while freshman Aaron Pierrard (Cannelton, Indiana) was third in the 800 meters.The Eagles, who had 17 top-five finishes on the weekend, return to action February 12-13 when they compete at the Grand Valley State University Big Meet in Allendale, Michigan, and the Tom Hathaway Distance Carnival in Indianapolis.Results: Complete
With their (4-0) start a distant memory, the now (5-1) Penguins find themselves in a dogfight with the (4-3) Islanders for the top spot in the JCC of Bayonne Sr. Division Floor Hockey “Championship Tournament.” Putting the Penguins in their crosshairs, the Islanders took a 3-0 lead on three Alejandro Cifuentes goals off assists by David Matos (2) and Tristan Wolenski (1). Stunned by the Isles’ scoring blitz, the Penguins went on the attack by pouring in three straight goals as Drew Radil (2 goals, 1 assist), Aaliyana Cifuentes (1 goal, 1 assist) and Ezekiel Lupainez (1 assist) took the bull by the horns. Momentarily deadlocked at 3-3, the Islanders’ Alejandro Cifuentes nailed his fourth goal of the bout to lift the Isles to a 4-3 lead. Building on their up tempo attack, the Islanders stretched their lead to 5-3 on a David Matos’ net jet. Facing a tough stretch run, the Penguins loaded up a defense with Anthony Baez and Mariam Rasslan protecting the homefront. Needing goals in a hurry, Drew Radil and Aaliyana Cifuentes answered the call by blasting two game tying bullseyes. As the clock ticked down to 1:15, the 5-5 tie was erased by the Islanders’ Chris Ballance who fired in the game winning dart as the Isles moved to (5-3) with a hard fought 6-5 win. A special mention must be given to the Islanders’ Kasper Hooks who set up the winning goal with a brilliant defensive stop.
Last April, fans in Raleigh, NC had the pleasure of seeing Jason Isbell and Widespread Panic on the same billing. Not only were both Southern talents on the lineup together, but Isbell found his way into Panic’s performance for an incredible collaboration during the second set. The guitarist came out and joined Panic for a rendition of JJ Cale’s “Ride Me High,” jamming thoroughly for a great performance.Thanks to Widespread Panic, we have some new pro-shot footage of this exciting collaboration! Shot by Andy Tennille and mixed by Brett Orrison, you’re going to want to sit down and jam out to this great new video of “Ride Me High.”Watch Widespread Panic and Jason Isbell perform the JJ Cale classic, below.The full WSP setlist from that night can be seen below, thanks to PanicStream.Setlist: Widespread Panic at Walnut Creek Amphitheater, Raleigh, NC – 4/30/16Set 1 Travelin’ Light, All Time Low, Christmas Katie > Jack, Dyin’ Man, C. Brown, Bear’s Gone Fishin’ > Honky Red, Red Hot Mama (64 mins)Set 2 Sell Sell, Cease Fire > Ride Me High*, Genesis, 1×1, Blight > Chilly Water > Drums > Porch Song, Blue Indian, Climb To Safety (92 mins)Encore Walkin’ (For Your Love), Heaven (11 mins)Notes * w/ Jason Isbell on guitar
Philadelphia’s hottest rising acts, Tweed and Wax Future, will return to the city on February 17th at Underground Arts. In celebration of the co-headline announcement, the acts collaborated on a remix of Tweed’s “RL WRLD” from their hard-hitting acclaimed EP, The Chunky Life. Wax Future hit the studio, lending a new, re-funked perspective to the track relying on Tweed’s pre-existing instrumental components, segmenting and rearranging each to create an authentic, yet still distantly familiar, rendition.Listen to Wax Future’s take on “RL WRLD” below.Both acts had national success in 2016 and are determined to build upon that momentum this year. Tweed’s debut EP hit as high as #10 on the Relix jam radio charts in November. They affirmed themselves as one of the most tenacious touring bands, hitting 150 shows across the country. Similarly, Wax Future’s 2015 release, Keep The Memories EP, carried forth to a full-blown, nationwide immersion in 2016, introducing a bountiful catalog of new material intermingled with a dense tour and festival schedule.“We couldn’t have a better act joining us for this show,” says Tweed drummer, Joe Vela. “And the band was so excited to drop this ‘RL WRLD’ remix. It maintained elements of the original, while creating something new that’s uniquely Wax Future.”Wax Future imprints their stamp on “RL WRLD” through a deeply embedded layer of dense, resonating bass introduced with purposeful authority just as the remix begins to unfurl. An adamantly differential, electronic percussion kit, moves the composition to Wax Future’s frequently investigated breakbeat structure, providing further distinction. And while new guitar-riffs are left out this time around, it seems more than likely that such is only the case to leave plenty of space for Wax Future guitarist, Keith Wadsworth, to investigate numerous alterations come time for him and Hansell to take the stage February 17th.For event info and tickets, visit the following links: Event Info and Tickets.Tweed’s Upcoming Tour DatesJan 27 Deer Park Tavern – Newark, DEJan 28 Chameleon Club – Lancaster, PAFeb 17 Underground Arts – Philadelphia, PA w/ Wax FutureMar 2 Club Cafe – Pittsburgh, PA w/ Chalk DinosaurWax Future’s Upcoming Tour DatesFeb 3 Aisle 5 – Atlanta, GA w/ Vibe Street, Robbie DudeFeb 11 The 8×10 – Baltimore, MD w/ DYNOHUNTERFeb 17 Underground Arts – Philadelphia, PA w/ Tweed
A hidden world of vibrant colors, dynamic movements, and extraordinary shapes has come alive at Harvard.Researchers Roberto Kolter and Scott Chimileski’s large-scale photographs illustrating the intricate social and multidimensional wonder of the small-scale world of microbes are on display in the Science Center show “Scale: A Matter of Perspective” through Dec. 9. The stunning images, which blend art and science, also comprise the exhibit “World in a Drop: Photographic Explorations of Microbial Life” at the Harvard Museum of Natural History through Jan. 7.Stained Pseudomonas aeruginosa colony biofilm grown in the laboratory (left); signature image of the “World in a Drop” exhibit, taken on a blade of grass in the Arnold Arboretum.For a hands-on experience, educators, researchers, and the Art+Bio Collaborative will hold a Microbes Mini-Festival on Sunday from 1 to 4 p.m. Visitors can observe thriving microbial colonies on cheese rinds, and watch the aquatic micro-animals known as “waterbears” prowl a landscape the unaided human eye can’t see. The opportunity to work on a collaborative art project detailing a large microbial community and interact with fungi is part of the fun.The images below give a glimpse of what keeps our ecosystems and our lives in balance. These stunning pictures invite people to explore the significant, structural world of the unseen.— Deborah Blackwell Actinobacteria colony biofilm grown in the laboratory.Stained cross section showing a conidiophore of Aspergillus oryzae viewed using a light microscope (left); moss water viewed using a light microscope.Bacillus subtilis colony seen using a fluorescence microscope.Aspergillus oryzae, koji, growing on rice kernels.Stained cross-section of lichen viewed using a light microscope.Aspergillus oryzae, koji, growing on rice kernels (clockwise from top left); lichen growing on tree bark in the Arnold Arboretum; and a stained Bacillus subtilis colony biofilm grown in the laboratory.Marine pebble imaged using a scanning electron microscope.Colonies of diverse microbes obtained from cabbage and grown in the laboratory.Streptomyces roseosporus, species of actinobacteria, colonies photographed in the laboratory.Moss shoot (left) and xylem of an infected squash plant, both imaged using a scanning electron microscope.Diatoms imaged using a scanning electron microscope.Moss with water drops (left) and soil containing fungal filaments, both photographed in Kittery Point, Maine.
Share:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) WNY News Now File Image.DUNKIRK — Alternate and overnight parking regulations on Dunkirk streets will change today to assist snow removal efforts during the winter months, according to the Dunkirk Police Department.Overnight parking rules go into effect Sunday and stay in effect thru Saturday, April 3. For overnight regulations parking is prohibited on the following Streets from 3:30 a.m. to 7 a.m.:Brigham Road from Lakeshore Drive South to the City Line; Brooks Avenue; Canary Street; Central Ave. from City Pier to the City Line; Columbus Ave.; Doughty St.; Eagle St. between Fifth and Sixth Streets, between Lakeshore Dr. West; Second Street; E. Chestnut St. from Fizell St. West to Warsaw St.; E. 6 th St. from Main St. East to Maple Ave.; Franklin Ave. from Main St. South to Wright St.; Franklin Ave. from Talcott St. South to City Line; Irving Pl.; Lakeshore Dr. from City Line to City Line’ Lamphere St. from Seventh South to City Line; Lark St.; Leopard St.; Lynx St.; Main St. from Lakefront Blvd. South to Sixth St.; Main St. Extension from Newton St. South to City Line; Maple Ave. from Main St. South to Talcott St.; Middle Rd. from Moffat St. East to City Line; Nichols Ave.; North Beaver St.; Pelican St.; Plover St.; Point Dr. North; Point Dr. West; Roosevelt Ave.; Ruggles St. from Main St. South to Wright St.; Taft Pl.; Talcott St. from Roberts Rd. West to Franklin Ave.; Temple St. from Fourth north to CSX; Third St. from Main St. West to Central Ave.; Washington Ave. from Third St. South to Fourth St.; Second St. from Brigham Rd. West to Brooks Ave.; Seventh St. from Woodrow Ave. West to Brigham Rd.; Woodrow Ave. from Lucas Ave. North to Sixth St.All other Streets not subject to the above listed Overnight Parking are subject to Alternate Parking Regulations. The Alternate Parking Regulations change from weekly to daily for the Winter Months.Effective Sunday, and continuing through April 3, vehicles shall be parked only on the odd-numbered side of the street on odd-numbered days and only on the even-numbered side of the street on even-numbered days. The date of the day after the hour of 5:00PM will determine the side which Parking is allowed.Warning notices will be issued for a short period of time after which strict enforcement will begin by issuance of Parking Summonses. Vehicles in violation of Overnight, Alternate or any other posted Regulations which hamper snow removal efforts by Public Works or pose a hazard for access of emergency vehicles will be towed at the owner’s expense.Vehicles which block sidewalks and hamper sidewalk plowing will also be ticketed and towed if necessary.
View Comments The Tony Awards may head back uptown in 2016. Because of a planned summer run of a show featuring the Rockettes at Radio City Music Hall, the ceremony would instead be held at the (smaller and less central) Beacon Theatre, reports The New York Times. The Tonys took place at the Upper West Side venue in 2011 and 2012 due to a Cirque du Soleil engagement.The Rockettes show would likely be a revised version of New York Spring Spectacular, with performances set to take place from June 15 through August 7.The Tony Awards ceremony was held in a Broadway theater from 1967 (the year the event was first televised nationally) to 1996 and again in 1999. Before that, the Tonys were presented from a hotel ballroom.